hard vs soft is a measured physical hardness. Useful to know because hard wheat makes a sandy flour and soft wheat a velvety flour when stone or impact milled.


A variety that has been passed along in a family or by farmers that is of interest; usually it is modern and developed 50 or more years previously, but it can be any interesting variety handed down.


Older wheat varieties or grain crops that are a product of human selection and were developed before professional breeding programs existed, including Old World Landrace wheat varieties and also crosses made between Landrace varieties after 1900.


Six copies of its 7 chromosomes: 6 x 7 = 42 chromosomes. Triticum aestivum. eg spelt, bread wheat, club wheat (smaller seeds generally) *hulled wheat types

Hulled vs Free-threshing wheat

The hulled wheats are not free-threshing. Hulled wheats possess a weak rachis such that the spikes (heads) break apart during threshing into spikelets. The grain stays inside the spikelets. Hulled wheats can be planted in the form of the spikelets to shield seed from soilborne diseases. Broadcasting with a spreader is conveniently used to plant spikelets followed by rolling in the seed or harrowing. Specialized planters would be preferred for planting spelt spikelets to a depth of 1-1.5 inches. However, the bare grain can also be used for planting provided it has been dehulled without damage to the germ. Storage as cleaned spikelets gives increased protection from insect and rodent attack during storage. A special de-huller is required to dehull einkorn, emmer and spelt. Rice dehullers usually work well for these hulled wheat types. (hull = husk = chaff) Note that pearling machines are not appropriate for the production of hulled wheat seed or whole grain, since the pearling process removes a significant amount of bran and germ.